Introduction to Academic Disciplines

Following are recommended Concepts and Activi-ties by Academic Discipline for grades 1-3 in the English Program. These run across several different content areas, as indicated by headings in the left columns.
    These Activities and Concepts are all intended to provide content area integration and, at the same time, intensify the acquisition of English. it should be remem-bered, however, that the Whole Language philosophy mandates an evolutionary, student-friendly approach to the curriculum. There are many more Activities here than any teacher can utilize. Teachers should, therefore, feel free to select the Activities and Concept that are most relevant to the needs, interests, and English aptitude levels of their students, while working within a particu-lar theme.
    Teachers may also wish to modify Activities to suit the themes they select, even to the extent of applying the same successful Activity to a sequence of themes.
SCIENCE Rainbows are formed when light is refracted to show the color spectrum.  Use plastic prisms. Discuss rainbows. 
Storms bring rain which falls in amounts we can measure.  Children measure amount of rain after a storm. Record on Chart. 
Ants have an interesting society of their own.  Find ant hill outdoors. Observe over a period. 
Differrent kinds of animals move in different ways.  Chart and draw animals that walk, fly, and swim. 
Sand is made from large pieces of rock. Observe sand.
Shadows are formed when an object blocks light.  Use class-made puppets and fingers to cast shadows on walls.
Gravity iS a basic force in the universe. 
Do gravity experiment using a ramp and sandpaper. 
Putting animals and their young on a chat helps to clarify how they are alike and different.  Make a chart of animals and their babies. 
Many areas have four distinct seasons that bring different types of weather. 
Draw pictures of 4 seasons. Give weather reports to match each season. Compare with Puerto Rico. 
Many different animals live in Puerto Rico.  Draw pictures of animals of Puerto Rico. 
Different animals live in different types of homes.  Draw pictures of animal’s homes. 
Cold air freezes warm air melts. 
Freeze water in cups in the freezer. Then let them thaw. 
Pigs need special food and care. Make posters about pigs' needs.
Different animals live in different places.  Chart where animals live. 
Real mice and fictional mice are alike and different.  Learn about real mice. Compare them with fictional mouse in story.  
A tyrannosaurus was a gigantic dinosaur that lived millions of years ago.  Chart the characteristics of a real tyrannosaurus. 
A jungle has various types of flora and fauna. Make chart of what children think they know about jungles. 
We grow food in special ways so that it will help us to grow.  Discuss how food grows. 
A chart helps us to see similarities and differences, after we have gathered information.  Create a “Similarities/differences between frogs and toads" chart. 
A chart helps to compare things visually after we have done research.  Read materials about baby animals. Create a class chart of activities baby animals can do.
Different seeds grow into plants at different times.  Plant seeds. Develop a time-fine chart to illustrate rate of growth. 
Our five senses help us to recognize and understand the world around us. 
Walk through school yard using five senses. Draw a body profile chart-with 5 senses-and record individual responses. 
A chart is a visual way of identifying and comparing objects.  Make a chart illustrating and labeling baby animals and grown animals. 
Knowledge of a real life frog helps us to write about a make-believe frog.  Write a story about a pet frog, 
Many different kinds of animals and plants live in a pond.  Make a chart showing the animals and plants who live in a pond. 
Many different kinds of animals and plants five in a pond.  Make a mural showing animal and plant life in a pond. 
Frogs are very good jumpers.  Have a frog-jumping contest. 
Recipes tell us exactly how to make things.  Following a recipe, students will make foam clouds. 
The night sky has stars and a moon. Draw a night sky scene.
Different kinds of weather are shown by different types of clouds.  Make cotton clouds. Illustrate the weather resulting from each cloud type. 
Plants and humans need different things to grow,  Compare what plants and humans need to grow. Record responses on a chart. 
The way in which paddles are used determines the direction of a rowboat. 
Pantomime moving rowboat paddles. Then determine which direction rowboat would move. 
The parts. of the eye help us to see. 
Learn about structure of the eye by reading and self -examination.
Invisible ink can he made to send secret messages.  Make invisible ink. 
Compasses show direction.  Learn to make and use a compass.
There are many different kinds of trees. Compile a booklet of facts about trees.
There are many different kinds of trees. 
Make a feature analysis chart of different trees. 
The harlequin cabbage bug is an unusual insect.  Study about the harlequin cabbage bug. 
A house and its parts provide shelter.  Learn how houses are built.
Air currents he1p kites and man to fly. Learn how kites fly.
Different objects have different weights and strengths.  Weigh paper and other objects. 
Different animals live in different habitats.  Make chart of animal habitats. 
Birds have characteristics that are alike and different.  Make comparison chart of bird characteristics. 
Different animals have different physical characteristics.  Make a chart of physical characteristics of animals. 
Different animals have different migration patterns.  Do research on animal migration patterns. Make a bird watching chart.
Different animals have different traits and habits.  Do group research on traits of toad, mole, and rat. Share results with class. 
Tadpoles are baby frogs.  Make a flip book about tadpoles.
Ducklings develop from an egg and have certain characteristics.  Write and illustrate how ducklings develop. 
Stars are organized into constellations. 
Create a bulletin board display of constellations. 
Plants of all kinds develop from seeds. Germinate seeds.
Kites are carried along in the sky by wind.  Make and fly a kite. 
The sense of taste tells us how we feel about the foods we eat-whether we like them or not.  Learn about the sense of taste. Do taste tests. Describe the sensations. 
The wheel is an ancient invention that helps people to move themselves and objects. Chart things with wheels. 
SOCIAL STUDIES A farm is organized to help grow crops and feed and care for animals. Map a farm. Retell a story. 
People need to know routes to get places by foot or different kinds of transportation. Chart how people get to school. 
The desert is a hot, dry place, and people have to do certain things to five there. Discuss the desert and how people live there.
Many kinds of people in the community are there to help us. 
List and discuss how people in the community help 
Birthdays are celebrated in various ways in different cultures. Learn how birthdays are celebrated in other cultures. Make a piñata.
Farmers must do many different chores every day to keep the farm going. Study chores on a farm. 
Different types of hats are worn by people of various professions and occupations. Make hats that are worn by different occupations.
Articles that are usually discarded can be recycled. Use a recyclable article to make something useful.
Many interesting animals live at the North Pole. Paint and label animals found at the North Pole.
Different groups of people live in different types of dwellings. Make a chart showing types of homes and where they are found.
Using a map helps us to see where a story takes place. Map the city in which the story takes place.
People five and work in similar and different ways in the city and country. Do comparison/contrast charts of city and country.
The tyrannosaurus lived millions of years ago. Draw a picture of a tyrannosaurus in your own neighborhood.
A zoo holds many interesting animals that we may observe. 
Draw a map of locations of animals at the zoo. Use -different color crayons to depict different paths.
People lived and dressed differently years ago. Draw pictures and write sentences about early New England and Puerto Rico.
A chart is a visual representation that he1p us to understand things better. Chart seasonal activities. 
A chart is a visual representation that help us to understand things better. Make comparison chart of city and country.
Physically challenged are just like other people in most ways. Study physical handicaps-blindness. 
A family tree shows how members of the family are related to each other. Develop a family tree. 
Different people move in different ways. Illustrate ways of moving. 
Maps tell us about location, distances, streets, waterways, etc. in an area. Map your community. 
City and country are alike and different. Using a Venn Diagram, compare the city and the country.
A family tree shows how members of a family are related to one another. Discuss family relationships. Make a family tree.
Different people can move their households in different ways. 
Draw or cut out pictures that show the different ways that people can move households.
A picture map is a visual way to show routes, directions, and distance. Draw a picture map illustrating route to a friend's house.
There are many ways to travel from one place to another. 
Working cooperatively, students paint a mural showing ways of traveling. Label each means of transportation.
Map symbols help us to read and interpret maps. Make a map using a map key to represent symbols.
Other cultures should be understood and appreciated. Read stories from other cultures. 
Puerto Rico is a small island when compared with Africa and the U.S. Compare the sizes of Africa, United States, and Puerto Rico.
Africa is a large continent across the Atlantic from P.R. Locate Africa on a globe. 
A community story-teller keeps the history and legends of a people alive. Learn about community story-tellers. 
Martín Luther King and Harriet Tubman helped African Americans in many ways. Working cooperatively, write a paragraph about Martín Luther King and Harriet Tubman.
Stamps commemorate important people, places, and events of the past. Categorize stamps by subject. 
Rowboats, small boats, are a form of transportation propelled by paddles. Make paper rowboats. 
Using our imagination helps us to remember the things we read about and study. Keep a pirate’s log. Record activities for one day. 
The Atlas is a tool for getting information about all parts of the world-past and present. Explorers found new parts of the world. Investigate famous explorers. Learn how to use an Atlas. Make maps of explorations. 
Map reading helps us to get from one place to another. Use a map. 
Paper is a very useful material made from wood pulp or cloth. Learn how paper is made. 
A different culture can be compared with our own. Study about Japan. 
“Interviewing” helps us to consider what we know, what we would like to know, and why they are important. List famous people who might be interviewed. 
Making a map shows us how much we know, and need to know, about a place. Make a map of the classroom. 
Mail is an important part or communication. Write postcards. Visit a post office. 
For a well-managed house, everyone needs to perform his or her chores properly. List chores to be done at home. 
Different cultures should be appreciated. Make cultural kites. 
People should help each other. Plan a food bank.
Weaving is a craft that is very old, beatitiful, and useful. Learn about colonial and modem weaving.
Cars are powered by gasoline, built on assembly lines. 
Learn about how cars Move, early cars. Make paper models of  "assembly line" cars.
Special aids are very useful for people with physical handicaps. Learn about special aids for people with physical handicaps.
Each neighborhood has its own unique sounds. Research a sport. Make booklets of rules, how to play, etc.
Lighthouses are similar and different, but have the same function. Compare and contrast different pictures of lighthouses.
Each neighborhood has its own unique sounds. Create a “Neighborhood Sounds" book.
Making a map shows us how much we know, and need to find out, about a place. Create a map of the neighborhood around the school. 
A Time Capsule makes us think about the samples  of our culture that we will want future generations to remmember us  by. Create Time Capsule. 
Details provide a glimpse of a culture. 
Report on Pueblo villages. Make a graphic organizer of life there.
Different modes of transportation belong to different places and time periods. Make a comparison chart of different modes of transportation.
Making a mobile helps us show how much we know about place. Make a “country" mobile. 
Being able to locate places on a map help us to understand what an area is like. Locate different states on a map of the U.S.
A museum displays fascinating objects in a culture. Visit a museum. 
A library services a community in many ways. List how a library meets the needs of a community.
Learning to do a pictograph is fun, useful.  Make a pictograph of who in the class wants a cat or dog.
Playing this game helps us to use our English vocabulary and numbers. Play game "How many wheels does a                               have?"
Roundness is often found in the world around us. ldentify round objects. Make a collage. 
Knowing the numbers in English helps us to do numerical order and addition. Arrange wheels in numerical order. Do addition problems.
A bar graph is a way of comparing things visually. Do bar graph of where children five, using houses and apartments.
A chart shows things visually. 
Make a chart of various kinds of animal puppets children might make.
Learning to do a pictograph is fun and useful. Make a pictograph of the number of children in each class member's family.
Doing word problems helps us to use our English vocabulary to solve problems. Add "pairs"-do word problems with them. 
Knowing how to tell time helps us to he on time. Make play clocks. Tell the hour. 
Knowing about prices and ads makes us good consumers. Make signs advertising straw, sticks. and bricks and the prices for each.
A graph is a chart or picture that shows information. Make a graph of the number of animals in the story.
English word endings (-er, -est) help us to compare things. Line up according to size. Learn tall/taller/tallest--short/shorter/shortest.
Using English numbers helps us to count. Count coins-dimes, nickels, pennies. 
A graph is a chart in pictures that shows information. Make a graph of different animals and how many legs each one has.
A graph is a chart in pictures that shows information. Make a line graph showing how many hours of TV are watched every day.
Using English words for day's activities helps us to graph time each is performed. Chart a day's activities, showing the time each is accomplished. 
Using English words for foods and prices helps us to estimate in math and to decide which items to buy. Draw items of food and approximate prices. Decide which items will be purchased, and costs.
A recipe tells us exactly how to prepare food, if we follow it carefully. Follow a recipe. 
A graph is a chart or picture that shows information. Develop a chart of animals that children see daily.
Classifying means arranging things according to their similarities in some ways. Experiment with objects. Classify them into those that, float and those that do not. 
Counting is necessary to solve some math problems correctIy. Count to solve problems. 
Word problems need to be read carefully so we know what to look for. Learn math through word problems about ducklings.
People need to tell time to plan their lives properly. Learn to tell time. 
Knowing how to measure sizes and distances is a useful skill. Measure school rooms. 
Writing our own story problems, can help us to solve the story problems we are assigned. Write story problems. 
Graphs are ways of listing and comparing different objects visually. Make a graph of crafts that children would like to make.
Reading bus schedules helps us to plan our trips. Learn to read a bus schedule. 
Knowing how much money we can spend helps us to buy the things we want. Solve subtraction problems that deal with going to the store with money. 
Calculating costs helps us to, decide what to buy or pay for. Calculate costs of fruit per pound. 
Bar graphs are visual methods of comparing quantities of things. Make a bar graph using vegetables. 
Bar graphs are visual methods of comparing quantities of things. Make a bar graph of books taken out of the library.
Time can he measured in minutes. Measure minutes.
Symmetry means that two opposite parts of a design match each other. Fold paper into simple designs and cut out to note symmetry.
Different animals migrate for different distances. Make string graphs to compare lengths of animal migrations.
It’s important to know how much things cost before we do or buy them. Calculate cost of a party. 
Maps tell us the distances between different places. Calculate distances on a map. 
Knowing how much time elapses between parts of a story helps us to understan it. Make asp elapsed time problems using characters in a story. 
Different hobbies have different expenses or costs. Write word problems using the subject of hobbies.