CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
 

CHAPTER ONE

DEVELOPMENT AND THE INCORPORATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
CONCERNS IN DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

DEVELOPMENTALISM, PROGRESS AND GROWTH
MODERNIZATION AND THE WORLD POLITICAL ECONOMY
RETHINKING DEVELOPMENT: ALTERNATIVE PARADIGMS
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT
SUMMARY TO FIRST SECTION
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Environmentally Sustainable Development as a Constant Stock of Resources
Principles of Sustainability Analysis
THE ROLE OF PLANNING
SUMMARY


CHAPTER TWO

PUERTO RICO: THE DEVELOPMENT MODEL AND THE ENVIRONMENT

DEVELOPMENT IN PUERTO RICO
A Summary of Puerto Rico's Last 50 Years of Development
Operation Bootstrap and the Take-Off
The Petrochemical Refining Era
The Economic and Environmental Crisis, Mid-1970S-90s
DEVELOPMENT AND PATTERNS OF SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGE
 Socioeconomic Impacts
  Unemployment
  Poverty and Inequality
  Quality of Life
  Lifestyles and Consumption Rates
DEVELOPMENT AND PATTERNS OF ENVIRONMENTALDEGRADATION
The Economy
Industrialization Strategy -- Environmental Exemption as an Incentive
Institutional Framework and the Environment
Capital and Energy Substitution
PUERTO RICO AS A CASE STUDY


CHAPTER THREE

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO THE DESCRIPTION OF ECONOMIC-ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONS IN PUERTO RICO

DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGRAMMATIC MODEL
MODEL STRUCTURE: PUERTO RICO AS AN ECONOMIC-ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM
STRUCTURE OF THE REPRESENTATION
POPULATION SECTOR
Employment
ECOLOGY OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN PUERTO RICO
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS: ENERGY, LAND, AND WASTE

ENERGY USE
 Energy and the Economy
 Economic Output and Fuel Energy Use
 Energy and Employment
 Summary
DEVELOPMENT AND LAND USE CHANGE
 Land Use and Agricultural Production
 Methodology
 Discussion
 Summary
MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE
 Solid Waste
 Toxic and Hazardous Waste
 Estimates of Toxic Waste Generation
 Summary
CONCLUSIONS


CHAPTER FIVE

ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL-ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS IN
PUERTO RICO

GENERAL METHODOLOGY
EFFECTS ON TOXIC WASTE RELEASES AND EMPLOYMENT OF GROWTH IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR
THE RELATIONSHIP EMPLOYMENT-MANUFACTURING GROWTH
Methodology
Data Projections
Manufacturing And The Environmental Limits
Discussion
EFFECT OF CHANGES IN LAND USE IN PUERTO RICO'S POTENTIAL POPULATION SUPPORTING CAPACITY
Data Projections
Discussion
CONCLUSIONS


CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSIONS


BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX III
APPENDIX IV
APPENDIX V
VITA


LIST OF TABLES

TABLE
 

2.1 GNP BY SECTORS FOR SELECTED YEARS BETWEEN 1950 AND 1987
2.2 DIVERGENCE BETWEEN GNP AND GDP, 1950-88
2.3 COEFFICIENTS OF IMPORT AND EXPORT DEPENDENCY
2.4 TOTAL AND NET CONTRIBUTION TO GNP FROM MANUFACTURING, 1950-82
2.5 ENERGY USE DENSITY IN THE 12 COUNTRIES OF HIGHER ENERGY USE DENSITY AND THE UNITED STATES IN 1986
3.1 COMPARISON OF POPULATION DENSITIES AND ARABLE LAND IN SELECTED COUNTRIES AND ISLANDS
3.2 FORECAST OF POPULATION GROWTH FOR SELECTED YEARS BETWEEN 1980 AND 2015
3.3 LABOR FORCE, PARTICIPATION RATE AND RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT FOR SELECTED YEARS 1940-1988
3.4 SUMMARY OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY INPUTS, 1982
3.5 SUMMARY OF MAIN MANUFACTURING SECTOR OUTPUTS, 1982
3.6 EMPLOYMENT, ENERGY USE, AND TOXIC WASTE RELEASE RATIOS FOR MANUFACTURING SECTOR, 1987
4.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF ENERGY COSTS IN THE PUERTO RICAN ECONOMY
4.2 VALUE OF LOCAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FOOD CONSUMPTION
4.3 FARMLAND AND FARMS FOR SELECTED YEARS
4.4 FORESTED LAND AND ESTIMATES OF NONAGRICULTURAL, NON-FOREST LAND USE FOR SELECTED YEARS
4.5 PROJECTION OF FARMLAND AREA UNDER THREE DIFFERENT SCENARIOS, 1987-2015
4.6 PROJECTION OF CHANGES IN FORESTED LAND AREA, 1987-2015
4.7 PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL LOST DUE TO SHIFT OF FARMLAND TO OTHER USES IN THREE SCENARIOS
4.8 TOXIC WASTE RELEASED, VALUE ADDED, AND EMPLOYMENT BY MAJOR INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES IN PUERTO RICO, 1988
4.9 TEN TOXIC CHEMICALS REPORTED RELEASED TO THE ENVIRONMENT BY INDUSTRY IN TOTAL POUNDS AND PERCENTAGE BY MAIN INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGERS, 1988
5.1 PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT AND TOXIC WASTE RELEASE FOR THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS OF GROWTH
5.2 TOXIC WASTE RELEASE ESTIMATES FOR THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR BASED ON EMPLOYMENT PROJECTION TO YEAR 2015
5.3 SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL FOR SUPPORTING PEOPLE ESTIMATES IN PERCENT OF TOTAL PROJECTED POPULATION FOR SELECTED YEARS


LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
 

1.1 THE POSITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AMONGST OTHER PARADIGMS
2.1 CHANGE IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION, 1968-88
2.2 EMPLOYMENT BY MAIN SECTORS 1940-88
2.3 PARTICIPATION RATES AND UNEMPLOYMENT, 1940-88
2.4 SIMPLE DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF PUERTO RICO'S ECONOMIC STRUCTURE
2.5 POLLUTION CLUSTERING INDICATED BY SUPERFUND NATIONAL PRIORITY LIST SITES AND CANDIDATES
3.1 DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE SYSTEM
3.2 DETAILED REPRESENTATION OF THE PUERTO RICAN SYSTEM INCLUDING SUBDIVISIONS
3.3 SOME VALUES FOR FLOWS AND STATE VARIABLES IN PR
3.4 POPULATION GROWTH, 1940-88
3.5 ACTUAL POPULATION AND GROWTH FORECAST, 1980-2015
3.6 EMPLOYMENT BY MAIN SECTORS
3.7 DIAGRAM OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR
4.1 POPULATION, GNP, AND ENERGY USE ANNUAL CHANGE, 1969-88
4.2 TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BTU'S, 1968 TO 1988
4.3 GDP, GNP, AND TOTAL ENERGY USE IN PUERTO RICO FROM 1966 TO 1988
4.4 GDP AND ENERGY USE IN PUERTO RICO, 1975-88
4.5 ANNUAL RATES OF CHANGE IN GDP AND ENERGY USE
4.6 ENERGY USE YIELD
4.7  CHANGE IN FARMLAND AREA FROM 1950 TO 1987
5.1 PROJECTION OF PERCENT OF WORK FORCE ABSORBED BY MANUFACTURING
5.2 PROJECTION OF PERCENT OF WORK FORCE ABSORBED BY "OTHER SECTORS"
5.3 PROJECTION OF TOTAL LABOR DEMAND BY MANUFACTURING AND OTHER SECTORS UNDER DIFFERENT ASSUMPTIONS
5.4 PROJECTION OF MANUFACTURING SECTOR LABOR DEMAND AS A PERCENT OF WORK FORCE ASSUMING TWO RATES OF GDP GROWTH
5.5 PROJECTION OF OTHER SECTORS LABOR DEMAND AS A PERCENT OF WORK FORCE USING TWO RATES OF GDP GROWTH
5.6 TOXIC WASTE RELEASE ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS, 1940-2015
5.7 HISTORICAL DATA AND PROJECTION OF EMPLOYMENT UNDER ASSUMPTIONS OF HIGH AND LOW GROWTH RATES AND PROJECTION BASED ON CURRENT GROWTH PATTERNS
5.8 PEOPLE SUPPORTING CAPACITY AS A FUNCTION OF FARMLAND AREA: FOUR SCENARIOS

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