IV ‑ Results
The data was analyzed in different ways first in terms of parts of speech that were affected by interference, and then by type of structural change. In addition, a correlation analysis as well as a regression analysis was performed. In both cases, interference affected the reading comprehension of standard Spanish.
Table V shows the correlations between Multiple Choice Interference Test scores and Reading Comprehension Test scores for both total scores and specific grammatical structures. The correlation between Total Interference and Total Comprehension was ‑.48, which was statistically significant at the .01 level. This correlation demonstrates that greater interference is associated with poorer comprehension and thus supports the main hypothesis of this study.
This pattern of negative correlation between interference and comprehension held true for all of the specific grammatical structures with the exception of the substantive category. The negative correlation between interference of additional part of the speech (one extra word) and comprehension of additional part of the speech (one extra word) was moderate (r = ‑.32) and significant at the .05 levels. Thus, greater interference in additional part of the speech (one extra word) structures was associated with lower comprehension of additional part of the speech (one extra word) structures.
The correlations between comprehension of verbs and word order structures and interference in verbs and word order structures were in the expected direction, (r = ‑0.25 and r + ‑0.20, respectively), but were not statistically significant. The correlation between comprehension of substantives and interference of substantives was slightly positive, (r =.09), but was not statistically significant.
Correlations Between Multiple Choice Interference (MCI) Test
Table VI illustrates the correlation between Multiple Choice Interference Test scores and Reading Comprehension (IRI), total scores and specific grammatical structures. The first column of the table shows the correlation between Total Comprehension Interference of verbs, word order, additional part of the speech (one extra word), and substantives. All of these correlations were negative, showing that total comprehension was related to interference of specific grammatical structures. The two highest correlations were those between Total Comprehension Interference on verbs, (r = ‑ .32 P <.01) and Total Comprehension Interference on additional part of the speech (one extra word), (r s ‑ .31, P <.05).
Correlations Between Multiple Choice Interference Tests
Scores And Informal Reading Inventory Comprehension,
Other Grammatical Structures
Table VII presents the correlation between IRI comprehension test and interference on other grammatical structures: lexical change, morpheme change, one extra word, word order and major grammatical structural change. All of the correlations, with the exception of lexical change, which was almost zero, were in the expected negative direction.
Greater interference on the structures of morpheme change, one extra word, word order and major structural change was associated with lower reading comprehension scores and less interference on the structures was associated with higher reading comprehension scores. The correlation with the highest magnitude was the one between one extra word and reading comprehension; (r = ‑.37, < ‑.05). The second highest correlation was between morpheme change and comprehension; (r ‑ ‑.32, < .05). The correlations between word order and comprehension and between major structural arrange and comprehension were in the hypothesized direction but were not statistically significant.
Correlations Between Multiple Choice Interference (MCIT)
Scores (Total And Specific Grammatical Structures)
And Spanish Cloze Reading Levels
Table VIII illustrates the correlations between Spanish Cloze Test Reading Levels and Total Interference scores, and correlations between Cloze Test scores and Interference scores of Verbs, Word order, Additional Part of the Speech (One Extra Word), and Substantives. As can be seen from the table, the correlations were negative and small. None were statistically significant.
Correlations Between Multiple Choice Interference (MCIT)
Scores (Total Scores and Specific Grammatical Structures)
And LAS Oral English Scores
In Table IX are shown the correlations between LAS English oral test scores, total interference scores, and interference scores of Verbs, Word Order, Additional Part of the Speech, (One Extra Word), and Substantives. As can be seen from Table IX, the correlations were not statistically significant.
Correlations Among Informal Reading Inventory ‑
Comprehension 'Multiple Choice Interference Test,
Table X provides correlations among Reading Comprehension (IRI) Multiple Choice Interference Test, Age, English Oral Level and Cloze Spanish Reading Level. The top row of this table is of particular interest because it shows the relationship between reading comprehension and the other major variables of this study. An examination of the table reveals that the variable most strongly correlated with reading comprehension is the multiple choice interference test (r = ‑.48, P< .01).
Another variable correlated with Reading Comprehension is English Oral Level, (r =.37, P<.05). Thus, higher English oral level is associated with better Spanish reading comprehension.
The above table indicates that 237 of Reading Comprehension are explained by Interference. Also indicated is that 12% of English Oral Scores can be explained by Cloze Test Scores.
Table XI shows the Multiple Regression Analysis Using Total Reading Comprehension as the dependent variable and Cloze, LAS and Total Interference as predictor variables. Included in the table are the Multiple R, Multiple R2, the difference in the R2 and the F‑value for the R2 change. The table shows that the R increased from .38 to .58 when Total Interference was added to the regression equation as a predictor variable. The F‑value for the R2 change associated with Interference was highly significant, (F <.01). This finding supports the hypothesis that Interference is an important predictor of reading comprehension.
The regression analysis was performed using a method of hierarchal inclusion. First the Cloze results were entered to examine the effects of one's knowledge of structure of text as it related to the total comprehension score. Second, the scores on the LAS were included. Finally, the total interference score was entered to examine the effects of interference on total comprehension scores having considered one's level in the Cloze and LAS. The results indicate that interference was the variable most strongly correlated with reading comprehension.
Summary of Multiple Regression Analysis:
Cloze, LAS and Total Interference as Predictors
Table XII shows the Multiple Regression Analysis using Total Reading Comprehension as the dependent variable and Cloze, LAS and Interference subscales as predictor variables. The table includes the Multiple R, Multiple R2, the difference in R2 and the F‑value for the R2 change. The table shows that R increased from .38 to .50 when morpheme change was added to the regression equation. The R2 change for morpheme change had an F of 3.84, which approached significance (P<.06). This finding suggests that morpheme change is an important predictor of reading comprehension. Two other subscales, extra word and lexical change, were also allowed to enter the regression equation. However, the F‑values associated with their R2 change were not statistically significant.